Research background

Szonda Ipsos has conducted billboard efficiency research on a monthly basis since 1992. For 13 years we have researched more than 8000 billboard, city-light and transit advertising campaigns. Initially the research was complete, which means that we involved each campaign of the given month in the research, but presently it is not possible because of the great number of campaigns. The applied method enables to research maximum 120 campaigns so we choose the campaigns to be involved in the research on the basis of our clients’ needs and/or the market value represented by a campaign.


Sample size, sample composition:

Each month we survey 800 persons who represent the 15-70-year-old population of settlements with more than 28,000 residents according to the most important social- demographical characteristics. These settlements include Budapest – together with its agglomeration – and the 43 biggest towns in the country.


By sex
Male 48
Female 52
By settlement
Budapest (together with its agglomeration) 38
Countryside 62
By age
Young (15-29-year-old) 37
Middle aged (30-49-year-old) 37
Old (Older than 50) 26
By income (total income/household members)
Low (under HUF 30,000) 37
Average (HUF 30-50,000) 43
High (above HUF 50,000) 20
AB 24
C1 8
C2 23
DE 41
NV 4
By education
8 elementary 31
Vocational training 19
Secondary education 33
College, university degree 17
Totally 100


Data collection method

Until the end of 2007, Face-to-face Computer Assisted Personal Interviews (CAPI) in the flats of the respondents using a representative sample. From 2008, the survey is carried out with an online questionnaire (CAWI), where the respondents were chosen from Szonda-Ipsos’ on-line panel. The posters appear in a colorful digital format on the screen, the name of the advertiser and the brand is hidden.


The four questions of the questionnaire have been the same since 1992, which is particularly important because of the standardization.

The four questions are as follows:

  • Have you seen the billboard?
  • (If yes) Do you know what the covered word is?
  • Do you like the billboard?
  • Does the billboard encourage you to buy the advertised product or service?


We create fourteen indices on the basis of the above four questions. These are as follows:


Recognition is the percentage rate of those who – having seen the photo – claimed to have seen the poster. The recognition indicator is influenced by several circumstances, in the first place, of course the number and the territorial distribution of the campaign. The research method applied by Szonda Ipsos is primarily suitable for surveying campaigns at national level, in Budapest and in the provinces, but campaigns with a narrower territorial distribution cannot be measured properly. With these parameters the creative material also influences the recognition as it is easier for the respondents to recall an attractive poster. Campaigns that are run in other media as well are also able to produce higher recognition rates as the media strengthen each other in this case.

Total Attribution

The attribution indicator shows the percentage rate of those who correctly named the word – i.e. the advertiser or the brand – that we had covered. This indicator is also largely influenced by the size of the campaign, and by the fact whether it is also run in other media because the bigger the campaign, the bigger chance the audience has to remember the advertiser. In this regard, the ads of well-known, long established brands as well as advertisers always appearing with an identical imagery are really successful because in their case it is easier to connect the motifs in the poster to the advertiser or to the brand.

If the poster does not feature the name of either the advertiser or the brand, we do not cover anything. The situation is also the same if the name of the advertiser or the brand makes up the whole poster as in this case nothing could be seen if we covered the poster. In this case this indicator is ignored.

Attribution (Brand Awareness)

The brand awareness indicator is the percentage rate of those who correctly recognise the campaign, however, in this case, 100 % is only given by those who recognised the campaign. In this manner the brand awareness indicator shows the level of brand awareness of those who can recall the campaign (reached in „qualitative” terms), i.e. how many of them were able to correctly connect the advertisement with the brand.

Exact Attribution

There are some campaigns where the covered text is dividable several relevant parts. ( advertiser, brand; brand, type etc. eg: Ford Focus). The Attribution and Attribution indicators shows the percentage rate of those who correctly recognise least one element of the campaign. The exact Attribution is the rate of those – among people who recognised the campaign – who were able to fully identify the covered advertiser and brand name. When there are no dividable parts in the covered text, the values of the Attribution and Exact Attribution are same.

Total Brand Confusion

Similarly to the attribution index, the brand confusion indicator tells how individual the creative appearance is, i.e. how well the audience can identify the advertised brand on the basis of the colours, motifs, slogans and logos. The brand confusion index is the percentage rate of those who mentioned another brand (in the same product group) instead of the advertised brand. If the brand confusion index is high, the campaign runs the risk of helping a competitor brand as the campaign imprinted the poster as an advert for another brand in people’s mind.

Brand Confusion

The brand confusion indicator is the percentage rate of those who mentioned another brand (in the same product group) instead of the advertised brand., however, in this case, 100 % is only given by those who recognised the campaign.

Total Like/Total Dislike

The total like index shows in numerical terms the percentage rate of those who claimed to like the poster. The index also reflects the emotional relationship of the respondents to the advertised brand and product. This indicator largely depends on what the respondents think about the advertiser, the brand or the product. Funnily enough, however, the campaign intensity also influences the like index as people „get used“ to adverts that are seen often and at many places, and thus they tend to say more easily that they like it.

The total dislike index shows the rate of those respondents who claimed not to like the poster.


The like index highlights the percentage of those who recognised the campaign and liked the it, therefore 100 % is made up by those who recognised the campaign.

Total Persuasion:

The persuasion index expresses the percentage rate of those who claimed that the poster persuaded them to purchase the advertised product or to use the service. The persuasion index is largely influenced by the income position of the respondents. Some respondents may claim not to be persuaded because they are actually not persuaded by the poster, but it is also possible that they would be persuaded but they cannot afford the advertised product/service due to financial reasons.


The persuasion rate shows the percentage of those who are persuaded by the campaign, however, in this case 100 % is given only by those who recognised the campaign. Thus the persuasion index shows the level of persuasion among those who were actually reached by the campaign.

Purchase stimulation index

The purchase stimulation index shows the relationship between the „like“ and „persuasion“ rates. It shows the number of respondents – among those who claimed to like the poster (100 %) – who felt like purchasing the product or trying out the service. The index shows the rate at which the positive impacts evoked by the advertising may turn into actual purchases.

POSTerTEST index

The POSTerTEST is a uniform index worked out by Szonda Ipsos that helps to compare all surveyed campaigns. The POSTerTEST index evaluates the campaigns on a 100-point scale. The POSTerTEST also contains the recognition, attribution, like and persuasion indices according to their weight. In the POSTerTEST index all respondents are given a weight between 0 and 100 according to how they replied to the questions regarding recognition, attribution, like and persuasion.

Classification system

All campaigns are organised according to their topics in the classification system which is approved in the market. The classification levels are as follows: advertiser, brand, segment, category and sector. In addition to the above mentioned campaign groups, Szonda introduced what is called the Ipsos Standard group to the market. The Ipsos Standard is the group classifying those campaigns which are the closest to the surveyed campaign on the basis of their attributes. The Ipsos Standard is determined by the segment and by the piece number of the surveyed campaign. (For example, besides a 300-piece campaign belonging to the X segment we indicate the average figures of 250-400-piece X campaigns.)

Target Groups

In the POSTerTEST, the results are indicated – according to index figures and classification levels – for the total population as well as for those social and demographic groups which generally produce different-from-average impact results in the outdoor area. These are the followings:

Total population 18-49 aged group Those with high level education Those in ABC status Women Men
Population in Budapest Budapest, 18- 49 age group Those with high level education in Budapest Those in ABC status in Budapest Women in Budapest Men in Budapest
Population in the country Provincial 18- 49 age group Those with high level education in the country Those in ABC status in the country Women in the provinces Men in the provinces